Sueño y cansancio durante el embarazo

Recuerdo perfectamente que en el embarazo de Martí, me echaba en el sofá bastante a menudo para hacer algunas cabezaditas. Ahora, combatir el sueño y el cansancio durante el embarazo con un niño pequeño de dos años, es más complicado…

Cuando anuncié este segundo embarazo, después de darme la enhorabuena y preguntarme cómo me encontraba, venía la misma pregunta casi en el 100% de los casos: ¿El embarazo te da mucho sueño? Y mi respuesta era clara: Sí…

La pregunta era común entre casi todas las que ya eran mamás, porque este síntoma está presente en prácticamente todas las mujeres embarazadas.

Sueño y cansancio durante el embarazo

La fatiga en el embarazo

Tener sueño y cansancio, fatiga y agotamiento, es muy común y normal al principio del embarazo. Sobre todo durante el primer trimestre, en los primeros días de embarazo. Y es que estamos creando una vida en nuestro interior, ¿a caso eso no debe de ser agotador para nuestro cuerpo? Dicen que la culpa la tienen las hormonas, en concreto la progesterona, por el aumento radical que se produce.

Durante el segundo trimestre del embarazo la energía suele volver, las molestias van desapareciendo y suele ser el mejor momento para nosotras. Sin embargo, el cansancio vuelve durante el tercer trimestre, porque estamos más pesadas y con una barriga que va creciendo y con la que cuesta hacer según qué cosas (¡hasta atarte un zapato!).

A todo esto, hay que sumarle que el posible insomnio o las frecuentes visitas al baño, o las náuseas y vómitos, no ayudan en tener un buen descanso nocturno. Esto provoca que durante el día vayamos arrastrando mucho cansancio y necesitemos pequeñas siestas.

Hay que tener en cuenta, y esto lo veremos con la analítica de sangre del primer trimestre, que esta fatiga no sea debida a una anemia.

¿Qué pasa si tienes anemia en el embarazo?

La falta de hierro durante el embarazo puede ser habitual y normal, y los médicos la llaman “anemia fisiológica de la embarazada”. Esto sucede porque pasamos a tener más cantidad de sangre en nuestro cuerpo y la misma cantidad de hierro que teníamos antes. Este fenómeno es llamado “hemodilución” del embarazo.

A veces con una dieta rica en hierro se puede solucionar, pero ocurre que hay casos en que es necesario un suplemento de hierro. En caso de tener que tomarlo, deberíamos aumentar la ingesta de fibra, porque suelen producir estreñimiento.

En la analítica de sangre podremos ver nuestros niveles de hemoglobina, que son los que marcan si tenemos o no anemia. Los niveles de hemoglobina normales en una mujer embarazada oscilan entre 11 y 14 gr. Si tenemos la hemoglobina por debajo, nuestro médico nos indicará cómo debemos proceder.

¿Qué hacer con este cansancio durante el embarazo?

  • Lo principal sería poder descansar tantas veces como nos pidiera el cuerpo. Pero siendo realistas, eso es bastante difícil en una sociedad en la que hay que ser hiperproductiva en el trabajo, una madraza y una ama de casa perfecta al mismo tiempo.
  • Hay que hacer lo imprescindible, sin cargarnos con más tareas de las necesarias y repartirlas con la pareja. Si es posible y lo vemos necesario, incluso podemos contratar a una persona que nos ayude con las tareas del hogar. Si tenéis más hijos, como es mi caso, podéis tirar de vuestra madre para que os ayude y poder descansar (eso lo hago yo).
  • Dicen que hacer ejercicio también ayuda a renovar energías. Digo “dicen” porque yo esto todavía no lo he probado… jejeje Los mejores ejercicios que recomiendan son yoga para embarazadas, pilates para embarazadas, caminar o nadar. Con el yoga me quiero poner pronto, ¡ya os contaré!
  • La dieta también es muy importante, la comida sana no nos hará sentir tan llenas y cansadas. En cambio, la comida basura, o demasiados hidratos, pueden hacernos sentir sensación de hinchazón y agotamiento. Sobre todo hay que tener en cuenta que si tenemos anemia debemos comer alimentos ricos en hierro.
  • El agua también forma parte de una dieta equilibrada, y tenemos que mantenernos hidratadas. Sin embargo, por la noche podemos evitar beber demasiado para no tener que levantarnos tan frecuentemente a orinar.

Si el cansancio durante el embarazo nos parece excesivo, lo mejor es consultarlo con el médico para descartar otras posibles causas.

¿Qué alimentos contienen hierro y son aptos para embarazadas?

Los alimentos que necesitamos son los que tengan altos niveles de hierro hemo, este tipo es el posible causante de la anemia. Además, es importante acompañarlos de vitamina C para que su absorción se vea favorecida.

Si el hierro que ingerimos es hemo, lo encontraremos en alimentos animales; en cambio, si comemos alimentos vegetales ricos en hierro, será no hemo. La diferencia es la absorción, éste último se absorbe en menor medida. Os pongo ejemplos de los alimentos que contienen más hierro:

Alimentos ricos en hierro no hemo (vegetal)

  • Espinacas
  • Acelgas
  • Berros
  • Brócoli
  • Garbanzos
  • Judías
  • Lentejas
  • Fresas
  • Higos
  • Ciruelas
  • Aguacate
  • Chirimoya

La fruta que más hierro tiene es el maracuyá, seguido del aguacate.

Alimentos ricos en hierro hemo (animal)

  • Hígado
  • Riñones
  • Ternera
  • Cerdo
  • Cordero
  • Pollo
  • Pavo
  • Perdiz
  • Buey
  • Sardinas
  • Anchoas
  • Atún fresco
  • Lenguado
  • Merluza
  • Almejas
  • Berberechos
  • Mejillones
  • Yema de huevo

Se suele decir que el alimento que contiene más hierro son las carnes rojas y los mariscos. Sin embargo, no debemos olvidar que los frutos secos (avellanas, nueces, anacardos, pistachos, almendras…) también tienen un alto valor de hierro además de ser ricos en grasas sanas.

Como comentaba antes, la vitamina C ayuda a la absorción del hierro, por lo que podemos acompañar nuestras comidas ricas en hierro de un vaso de naranja, unas mandarinas de postre, una ensalada de fresas, aliñar con limón en vez de con vinagre…

En cambio, el calcio dificulta la absorción de hierro, por eso es mejor tomar los lácteos separados de las comidas altas en hierro. Lo mismo ocurre con el café y el té.

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